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脑震荡

ID: ANH13093chis
医学动画文字记录:脑震荡是一种轻度创伤性脑损伤,当头部受到重击时就会发生。大脑是人体中最脆弱的器官,它的质地和密度与果冻类似。颅骨在大脑的外面提供了一层坚硬的保护壳。一种叫做脑脊液的液态物质包裹着大脑。在日常头部运动中,脑脊液起到缓冲作用,使大脑免受颅骨壁的碰撞。这种缓冲作用可以保护大脑中数十亿个被称为神经元的神经细胞。每个神经元通过电信号与其他神经元进行交流,这些电信号沿着轴突传递下去,轴突又细又长,呈线状延伸。重击头部会导致大脑撞击到颅骨内壁。在撞击过程中,大脑挤压到颅骨内壁,在大脑中发送冲击波。这些冲击波撕裂或拉扯了一些神经元的轴突。这种创伤称为弥漫性轴索损伤或轴索剪切。受损的轴突通过中断神经元之间的交流而降低了正常的大脑功能。根据大脑受伤的部位,脑震荡的身体症状可能包括头痛、恶心、头晕、肌肉协调能力差、对光敏感、视物模糊、耳鸣、口齿不清和失去意识。你可能会有精神和情绪上的症状,包括定向障碍、迷糊、失忆、无法集中注意力、易怒和抑郁。对于轻微的脑震荡,医生会建议你休息,并监测你的症状,以确保情况不会恶化。可能会给你开一些轻度止痛药,比如对乙酰氨基酚或布洛芬。只服用医生推荐的药物,因为其他药物,如酒精,可能会延缓大脑的恢复。无论你是否看过医生,如果你有意识丧失、头痛难忍、呕吐或口齿不清的情况,都建议去看急诊。这些是脑震荡严重并发症的危险征兆。

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